IMCC Journal of Science

The Official Peer-Reviewed Journal of Iligan Medical Center College
ISSN Print: 2783-0357 | ISSN Online: 2783-0365
Development of an X-ray Shielding Material Based on Eggshells and Crab Shells
Mark Alipio 1, *, Emerson Paul Somontan 1, Prince Eroll Reyes 1, Grace Meroflor Lantajo 2

1 Iligan Medical Center College, Iligan City, Lanao del Norte, Philippines; (E.P.S.); (P.E.R.)
2 University of Southeastern Philippines, Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines; (G.M.L.)

* Correspondence:


Despite the significant role of X-ray radiation in medicine and industry, its excessive use poses a variety of harmful effects ranging from hair loss to death. These effects have been reduced using commercially available lead (Pb) shields. However, Pb-shielding materials are expensive, less durable, highly toxic, very heavy, and uncomfortable to wear for both X-ray machine operators and patients. Eggshells and crab shells are waste materials that are potentially capable of shielding X-rays. In this study, the shielding efficacy, mass, and durability of eggshell and crab shell samples were characterized using diagnostic X-ray energies from 30 to 150 kV and were compared to the standard Pb shield. Linear attenuation coefficient (μ) and radiation protection efficiency (RPE) were used to measure the shielding efficacy of the samples. The required thickness necessary to provide 90%, 95%, and 99% protection at 150 kV energy was also calculated. Across the diagnostic X-ray energy range, the brown eggshell-crab shell-silicone rubber (BE-C-SR) sample obtained the highest μ and RPE. This sample had the least thickness required to provide 90%, 95%, and 99% protection at 150 kV energy. The compressive strength and flex resistance values of BE-C-SR were closer to those of the standard Pb shield. In conclusion, BE-C-SR could be a good alternative to Pb-shielding materials owing to its lower cost, smaller mass, and comparable shielding efficacy and durability.

Keywords: eggshells; crab shells; Lead; X-ray shielding