VUCA Approach to Adapting Presidents’ Leadership Styles in China’s Application-oriented Higher Education Institutions
Jun Liu 1, *, Mingming Chen 2



1 Research and Development Center for Languages and Cultures, Shanghai Publishing and Printing College, Shanghai Research Institute of Publishing and Media, China
2 College of Information and Smart Electromechanical Engineering, Xiamen Huaxia University, China; cmm@hxxy.edu.cn (M.C.)



* Correspondence: Junliu_SPPC@163.com

Abstract: 

The concept of application-oriented higher education institutions (A-HEI) in China has something in common with that of cooperative education or dual education institutions. The changes in education system have led to more challenges of volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) in the present situation. Based on synergistic leadership theory and the VUCA approach, this paper synthesizes a framework of situation analysis and solution strategies. Applying this synthesized framework, together with the situational leadership theory, this paper analyzes the situation of developing China’s A-HEI, including the synergistic leadership factors and the VUCA challenges, and provides essential solutions. Presidents may adapt leadership styles by applying corresponding strategies to address VUCA challenges in the present situation of China’s A-HEI. This paper also offers references and implications to further research on the educational leadership in China’s A-HEI.

Keywords: A-HEI; leadership styles; situational leadership; synergistic leadership factors; VUCA challenges

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